Each of the 22 Standard Rules includes a number of specific instructions or proscriptions. Because of limited space, only the headings of the rules are given here. We hope to discuss them in more detail in future issues of Frontline.


Rule 1: Awareness-raising
States should take action to raise awareness in society about persons with disabilities, their rights, their needs, their potential and their contribution.

Rule 2: Medical care
States should ensure the provision of effective medical care to persons with disabilities.

Rule 3: Rehabilitation
States should ensure the provision of rehabilitation services to persons with disabilities in order for them to reach and sustain their optimum level of independence and functioning.

Rule 4: Support services
States should ensure the development and supply of support services, including assistive devices for persons with disabilities, to assist them to increase their level of independence in their daily living and to exercise their rights.


Rule 5: Accessibility
States should recognise the overall importance of accessibility in the process of the equalisation of opportunities in all spheres of society. For persons with disabilities of any kind, States should (a) introduce programme of action to make the physical environment accessible; and (b) undertake measures to provide access to information and communication.

Rule 6: Education
States should recognise the principle of equal primary, secondary and tertiary educational opportunities for children, youth and adults with disabilities, in integrated settings. They should ensure that the education of persons with disabilities is an integral part of the educational system.

Rule 7: Employment
States should recognise the principle that persons with disabilities must be empowered to exercise their human rights, particularly in the field of employment. In both rural and urban areas they must have equal opportunities for productive and gainful employment in the labour market.

Rule 8: Income maintenance and social security
States are responsible for the provision of social security and income maintenance for persons with disabilities.

Rule 9: Family life and personal integrity
States should promote the full participation of persons with disabilities in family life. They should promote their right to personal integrity, and ensure that laws do not discriminate against persons with disabilities with respect to sexual relationships, marriage and parenthood.

Rule 10: Culture
States will ensure that persons with disabilities are integrated into and can participate in cultural activities on an equal basis.

Rule 11: Recreation and sports
States will take measures to ensure that persons with disabilities have equal opportunities for recreation and sports.

Rule 12: Religion
States will encourage measures for equal participation by persons with disabilities in the religious life of their communities.


Rule 13: Information and research
States assume the ultimate responsibility for the collection and dissemination of information on the living conditions of persons with disabilities and promote comprehensive research on all aspects, including obstacles which affect the lives of persons with disabilities.

Rule 14: Policy-making and planning
States will ensure that disability aspects are included in all relevant policy-making and national planning.

Rule 15: Legislation
States have a responsibility to create the legal bases for measures to achieve the objective of full participation and equality for persons with disabilities.

Rule 16: Economic policies
States have the financial responsibility for national programmes and measures to create equal opportunities for persons with disabilities.

Rule 17: Co-ordination of work
States are responsible for the establishment and strengthening of national co-ordinating committees, or similar bodies, to serve as a national focal point on disability matters.

Rule 18: Organisation of persons with disabilities
States should recognise the right of the organisations of persons with disabilities to represent persons with disabilities at national, regional and local levels. States should also recognise the advisory role of organisations of persons with disabilities in decision-making on disability matters.

Rule 19: Personnel training
States are responsible for ensuring the adequate training of personnel, at all levels, involved in the planning and provision of programmes and services concerning persons with disabilities.

Rule 20: National monitoring and evaluation of disability programmes in the implementation of the Standard Rules
States are responsible for the continuous monitoring and evaluation of the implementation of national programmes and services concerning the equalisation of opportunities for persons with disabilities.

Rule 21: Technical and economic co-operation
States, both industrialised and developing, have the responsibility to co-operate in and undertake measures for the improvement of the living conditions of persons with disabilities in developing countries.

Rule 22. International co-operation
States will participate actively in international co-operation concerning policies for the equalisation of opportunities for persons with disabilities.

The UN Standard Rules are listed on several sites on the Internet. An easy-to-read edition of the Standard Rules has been produced by The Centre for Easy to Read, Box 4035, 102 61 Stockholm, Sweden (fax: 0046-8-642 7600; email: info@llstiftelsen.se). Copies of the Easy to Read booklet are available, priced $10-00 (incl. post and packing).


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